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Research on Medicinal Mushrooms

Potential of Mushroom Compounds as Immunomodulators in Cancer Immunotherapy: A Review

In complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), mushrooms are increasingly being
accepted for treatment of various diseases. Mushrooms have been shown to have the ability to stimulate the immune system, modulate humoral and cellular immunity, and potentiate antimutagenic and antitumorigenic activity, as well as rejuvenating the immune system weakened by radiotherapy and chemotherapy in cancer treatment. This potential of mushrooms, therefore, qualifies them as candidates for immunomodulation and immunotherapy in cancer and other diseases’ treatment. However, a critical review on mushroom’s immune modulating potential in cancer has not been sufficiently addressed. This review puts forward insights into the immune activities of mushroom associated with anticancer activities. Read More

Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology

This review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, and Trametes versicolor. First, this article focuses on how mushrooms modify cytokines within specific cancer models and on how those cytokines affect the disease process. Second, this article examines the direct effect of mushrooms on cancer. Finally, this article presents an analysis of how mushrooms interact with chemotherapeutic agents, including their effects on its efficacy and on the myelosuppression that results from it. For these 5 mushrooms, an abundance of in vitro evidence exists that elucidates the anticancer immunological mechanisms. Preliminary research in humans is also available and is promising for treatment. Read More

Medicinal Mushrooms as an Attractive New Source of Natural Compounds for Future Cancer Therapy

This review analyzes the recent knowledge of four Basidiomycota mushrooms: Fomitopsis pinicola, Hericium erinaceus, Trametes versicolor and Inonotus obliquus. They belong to three different orders, and are a rich source of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, glucans, terpenoids, steroids, cerebrosides and proteins, which can be used for treatment of various cancers. We chose these representatives to convexly illustrate the therapeutic potential of the fungi and fungal-derived products in relation to cancer and to inspire further interdisciplinary work at the junction of oncology and mycology, which should result in future discoveries of novel low-toxic drugs with highly specific antitumor activities. Read More

Redefining Medicinal Mushrooms: A new scientific screening program for active compounds

NAMMEX looks in depth at the key active compounds in medicinal mushrooms, identified as beta-D-glucans, triterpenoids, and ergosterol. Results of the analyses demonstrate that mushrooms are high in beta-D-glucans and very low in starch. Mycelium produced on cereal grains is low in beta-D-glucans and high in starch. Ergosterol analysis shows the actual amount of fungal material in the products. Mushrooms grown on natural substrates have the precursors to produce important secondary metabolites such as triterpenoids whereas mycelium produced on cereal grains lack these precursors. Read More

Coriolus Versicolor and Ganoderma Lucidum Related Natural Products as an Adjunct Therapy for Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Coriolus versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum related natural products are commonly applied as a complementary therapeutic option for different stages and types of cancers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the products for cancer therapy. Twenty-three trials involving 4,246 cancer patients were included in this work. C. versicolor and G. lucidum related natural products were significantly associated with lower risks of mortality and higher total but not associated with control rate compared with control treatment. Conclusion: In this meta-analysis, we found that C. versicolor and G. lucidum related natural products might have potential benefits on the overall survival and quality of life in cancer patients. Read More

Potential activities and mechanisms of extracellular polysaccharopeptides from fermented Trametes versicolor on regulating glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells

The results suggest that the HG and HGI models presented a condition similar to insulin resistance. In addition, we have demonstrated that TV LH-1 ePSP may elevate glucose uptake and regulate glucose homeostasis in hepatocytes with insulin resistance via the activation of AMPK and glycogen synthesis in an insulin-independent manner, as shown in the decreased GSK3, increased G6Pase and the ratio of phosphorylated to total AMPK and unchanged phosphorylated IR and Akt. These results suggest that TV LH-1 ePSP has a great potential to be an anti-hyperglycemic functional food. These results suggest that TV LH-1 ePSP has a great potential to be an anti-hyperglycemic functional food. Read More

The role of polysaccharide peptide of Ganoderma Lucidium as a potent antioxidant against atherosclerosis in high risk and stable angina patients

Antioxidants can reduce oxidative radicals that affect the early phase of atherogenesis, that is endothelial dysfunction. Polysaccharide Peptide (PsP) derived from Ganoderma lucidum has an active substance in the form of β-glucan. Previous studies have proven the PsP of Ganoderma lucidum as an effective antioxidant in atherosclerotic rats and shows no toxicity in animal model. This study aims to prove the effect of PsP as potent antioxidant in high risk and stable angina patients. The conclusion was that PsP of Ganoderma lucidum is a potent antioxidant against pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in stable angina and high risk patients. Read More

Coriolus Versicolor Polysaccharide Peptide Slows Progression of Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study to evaluate the effects of 28-day administration of PSP (Windsor Pharmaceutical, Hong Kong) on patients, who had completed conventional treatment for advanced NSCLC. Although polysaccharide peptides (PSP), isolated from the fungus Coriolus versicolor, have been reported to have anti-tumor effects, its clinical efficacy has not been properly evaluated. Conclusion: PSP treatment appears to be associated with slower deterioration in patients with advanced NSCLC. Read More

Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) on Hematological Parameters

In this study the effect of Ganoderma lucidum was evaluated on hematological parameters in Wistar rats. The extract was given orally by gavage at the dose of 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight. Ganoderma lucidum showed extremely significant effect on hematological parameters specifically in case of hemoglobin level, leukocyte count and platelet count. It is, therefore, concluded that Ganoderma lucidumcan be used as an important medicinal mushroom in the treatment of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and blood clotting disorders. Read More

Cordyceps spp: A Review on its Immune Stimulatory and Other Biological Potentials

Cordyceps spp. contains different compounds with the ability to strengthen the response of the immune system and also to control its exacerbated response. Most of the information on the effect of Cordyceps on the immune system derives from studies in cancer. In particular, Cordyceps spp. increases the production of interleukin and tumor necrosis factor, induces phagocytosis of macrophages, mononuclear cells, nitric oxide (NO) release, and stimulates the inflammatory response.  Furthermore, it presents synergism with interferon in the production of cytokines. These properties are attractive in the search for new applications where the stimulation in the immune system response is wanted. Therefore, this review collects and analyzes the state-of-the-art about properties of Cordyceps spp. focused on the stimulatory properties of immunity.  Read More